• Building State Capability Book Cover


    A practitioners guide to PDIA by Matt Andrews, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock.

  • Building PFM CABRI Workshop


    Using PDIA to support PFM reform, in collaboration with CABRI.

  • PDIA online course statistics


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  • PDIA in Sri Lanka


    Mobilizing PDIA teams in Sri Lanka to target FDI.

  • Set of tools displayed on work bench


The Building State Capability (BSC) program at the Center for International Development (CID) at Harvard University researches strategies and tactics to build the capability of public organizations to implement policies and programs.


The BSC team uses the Problem Driven Iterative Adaptation (PDIA) approach, which rests on four core principles:

local solutions for local problems
pushing problem driven positive deviance
try, learn iterate, adapt
scale through diffusion




Recent Publications

Overcoming the Global Despondency Trap: Strengthening Corporate Accountability in Supply Chains

Evans, Alice. 2019. “Overcoming the Global Despondency Trap: Strengthening Corporate Accountability in Supply Chains”. Abstract

This paper re-examines why global collective action problems persist, and how to overcome them. Drawing on 140 interviews with campaigners, politicians, and businesses in 10 European countries, it suggests that many activists are stuck in a despondency trap. Never seeing radical reform, they lower their ambitions, and invest in more feasible but sub-optimal alternatives. This creates a negative feedback loop, in which the dearth of radical reform becomes self-fulfilling. But if reformists see advances at home and abroad, they may become more optimistic about collective mobilisation and break out of their despondency trap. This is shown by tracing the drivers of ground-breaking legislation. From 2018, large French firms must mitigate risks of environmental and human rights abuses in their global supply chains, or else be liable. This bill – the world’s first of its kind – was vociferously contested by businesses. But French campaigners and politicians persisted for four years, because they saw reasons for optimism. These include growing international support; public outcry; the French political culture (state intervention, and distrust of multinationals); together with a Centre-Left Government. Optimism galvanised relentless mobilisation. Legislative success in France then delivered a positive shock to activists across Europe, who were emboldened to launch similar campaigns and escape their despondency trap.

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How Cities Erode Gender Inequality: A New Theory and Evidence from Cambodia

Evans, Alice. 2019. “电脑硬件检测软件哪个好?推荐你五款好用的硬件检测软件 ...:2021-6-12 · 我们在使用电脑的时候经常需要查看电脑的相关参数,这个时候我们就要用到硬件检测软件帮助我们辨别硬件的真伪,比如电脑型号、cpu、温度、内存等都可以一目了然。”. Abstract
Support for gender equality has risen, globally. Analyses of this trend focus on individual and/or country-level characteristics. But this overlooks sub-national variation. Citydwellers are more likely to support gender equality in education, employment, leadership, and leisure. Why is this? This paper investigates the causes of rural-urban differences through comparative, qualitative research. It centres on Cambodia, where the growth of rural garment factories enables us to test theories that female employment fosters support for gender equality: potentially closing rural-urban differences; or whether other important aspects of city-living accelerate support for gender equality. Drawing on this rural and urban fieldwork, the paper suggests why social change is faster in Cambodian cities. First, cities raise the opportunity costs of gender divisions of labour – given higher living costs and more economic opportunities for women. Second, cities increase exposure to alternatives. People living in more interconnected, heterogeneous, densely populated areas are more exposed to women demonstrating their equal competence in socially valued, masculine domains. Third, they have more avenues to collectively contest established practices. Association and exposure reinforce growing flexibility in gender divisions of labour. By investigating the causes of subnational variation, this paper advances a new theory of growing support for gender equality.
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When Do Development Projects Enhance Community Well-Being?

Woolcock, Michael. 2019. “When Do Development Projects Enhance Community Well-Being?”. Abstract
国内电脑怎么上google 2019-06-cid-wp-355-community-well-being.pdf
Many development agencies and governments now seek to engage directly with local communities, whether as a means to the realization of more familiar goals (infrastructure, healthcare, education) or as an end in itself (promoting greater inclusion, participation, well-being). These same agencies and governments, however, are also under increasing pressure to formally demonstrate that their actions ‘work’ and achieve their goals within relatively short timeframes – expectations which are, for the most part, necessary and desirable. But adequately assessing ‘community-driven’ approaches to development requires the deployment of theory and methods that accommodate their distinctive characteristics: building bridges is a qualitatively different task to building the rule of law and empowering minorities. Moreover, the ‘lessons’ inferred from average treatment effects derived from even the most rigorous assessments of community-driven interventions are likely to translate poorly to different contexts and scales of operation. Some guidance for anticipating and managing these conundrums are provided.


Evans, Alice. 2019. “look小站 - look小站:look小站,lookother.com,lookother,电脑chrome打不开网页,访问不了google,电脑如何谷歌,电脑科学上网,twitter,ins怎么下载注册使用,p站,老司机说的p站是什么,怎访问谷歌,google怎么访问,谷歌浏览器无法访问”. Abstract

This paper shows that countries may reduce labour repression if they perceive this as conducive to export growth. This paper traces what happened before, in the presence of, and then following the withdrawal of international economic incentives for pro-labour reforms in Vietnam and Bangladesh. The Government of Vietnam announced it would allow independent trade unions, in order to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and increase market access. Similarly, the Government of Bangladesh rescinded restrictions on unions, following global condemnation of Rana Plaza and fear of buyers leaving en masse. Both governments reduced labour repression to promote export growth. With high-level authorisation, Vietnamese and Bangladeshi activists and reformists became less fearful, and mobilised for substantive change. However, these economic incentives were short-lived: after Trump’s election, the USA withdrew from TPP; buyers continued to source from Bangladesh, and squeezed prices (without requiring labour reforms). Both governments then amped up labour repression - notwithstanding private regulation, economic upgrading, industry growth, and mass strikes.


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